The problem of South Sudan could be inclined in its past which dates back to the Anyanya wars. The past huddle blacks in the Sudan faced had been racism and discrimination. Sharia law was imposed on South Sudanese that they were victims of illiteracy, labor, human trafficking and conversion to Islam with disregard to the African cultures.

The students who worked in the Sudan under the Arab dominion who included Colonel John Garang de Mabior, Samuel Gai Tut, Akuot Atem,  Joseph Oduho and Salva Kiir Mayardit among others decided to resist such practices so as to free South Sudanese. SPLA war was the second of such resistance as the Anyanya 1 and 2 which failed to achieve their target. SPLA/M would be the most refined war.

However much the SPLM/A struggled, the struggle became a success due to international support to free South Sudanese from gross human rights violations. The U.S was key in the comprehensive peace agreement signed in Naivasha Kenya to end twenty years of civil war that claimed over two million South Sudanese. The collective support from neighboring countries which paved way for the C.P.A seems to spotlight the current interest fueling and reciprocating conflict in the young nation. 

Each and every nation needed to suckle at the only teat the young nation has, “oil!” in the near future. The peace accord was still as delicate as a month old pregnant woman. There were fears of miscarriage till July 9, 2011 when South Sudan was declared an independent state. The previous supporters were happily peeping to suck the share they had worked on for over twenty one years. Everyone wonders why South Sudan is still at war. Below are the current challenges facing South Sudan:

i)                    The previous grudges with Arabs
South Sudanese have not forgotten that they were enslaved by Arabs. This has made the government of South Sudan to extend a hand to the rebels of South Kordofan and Blue Nile so as to free them from the same domination since their referendum which was to follow the South Sudanese referendum was neglected. This is retaliated by Bashir by supporting South Sudanese rebels who turn against the government of South Sudan. Such game had been cycling from one end to the other.

ii)                  Resources
Every nation neighboring South Sudan has interest in all the natural resources in South Sudan. They harbor rebellions that claim to establish an everlasting agreement to enable them exploit natural resources they fail to get in the hand of the current government. Moreover, the Sudan has interest in Abyei, a pure South Sudanese land of Dinka due to its richness in resources. This over years has raised conflict of interest between the two formerly enemy states, South Sudan and the Sudan.

The nations that lent South Sudan a hand like Uganda, Kenya, and U.S.A to mention but a few have demonstrated willingness in South Sudanese resources. Kenya is encroaching towards Nadapal aiming at snatching the oil rich parts of Eastern Equatoria State, South Sudan.

Ethiopia wants her economy boosted by various peace deals which yield no fruits. Uganda has filled South Sudan so as to generate food for their daily bread likewise to Kenya. Ethiopia too has filled Juba owning great firms. These are prizes for their previous help to the young nation.
Giving of oil to China is an unforgettable grudge between South Sudan and U.S.A. This shows that the current war in South Sudan is being fuelled by the U.S.

iii)                Power-hungry leaders
South Sudan has so far not found industrious leaders. The warlords who fought for freedom gag every citizen. “We fought for it without pay, we must benefit from it.” Every single leader is looking for Salva Kiir’s chair. Whoever is found not competent when sacked runs to the bush rebelling against the government so as to get back his job. This paralyzes the economy and leads to loss of lives.

iv)                Tyranny and corruption
The presidency has all the powers which stretch even to the states. He is capable of pardoning anyone and sacking anyone. He holds the law in his hands. This means that even the judiciary is not independent. The state citizens are not free to vote for the right candidate to lead them. In order for anyone to lead in South Sudan, one has to come from SPLM/A. Secondly; he has to be the President’s sycophant. Failure to do so is something else related to joblessness if not death.

v)                  Personal interest
All the ministers and civil servants who had been employed since South Sudan’s inception had been sitting on jobs. They had always devised criticizing mouths but unable to improve their various ministries and areas of work. This has maintained the snail pace of development. They challenge their own government that they fail themselves. The government fears to sack them because of running to the bush to rebel. This mesmerizes the country. Most of the civil servants are not employed based on their right professions but due to how learned they are. An engineer may be employed as the minister for health. Will he be skilled at his job? That is the paradox.

vi)                Wrong presidential advisors
An advisor should be someone more knowledgeable about what to advise on. A lawyer for example may be employed to advise on economic affairs. Such an employee will not advise in the right way. The chief advisors to the president are called the “Jieng council of elders!” Jieng is another name for Dinka. “Dinka council of elders.” This means that all such elders are from Dinka when South Sudan has 42 tribes. This would have been good if these elders were from various South Sudanese tribes. 

The other tribes instead of presenting this in a logical manner politically, tend to fight this back by fighting innocent Dinka. They call them MTN. They look for Dinka in every vehicle they ambush asking if there is any MTN in the vehicle. Any MTN that is found must be killed. This has implanted hatred in lieu of peace in the hearts of Dinka, Nuer, Chollo, Murle, Equatoria to mention but a few.

vii)              Media
A peaceful country is a country in which the views of the citizens are heard and met. But this is what South Sudan misses. The agenda setting work of the media has been entranced. All the journalists working in South Sudan must abide by the needs of the government. Truth never shines. Journalists who distance themselves from the interest of the government are referred to as rebels, thus are prone to killing. South Sudan lacks an intermediary that takes government policies to the people and the needs of the citizens to the political arena. Leaders benefit, citizens die of hunger, no one complains for them. A government which needs not to be challenged will not improves.

viii)            Ethnicity and illiteracy
There is nothing a South Sudanese values more than his tribe. A South Sudanese will always believe that his tribe is the strongest. In terms of voting, a South Sudanese will follow his tribe mate. It is hard for a South Sudanese to style up. Democracy will take South Sudanese couples of years to gain stability. The belief of neglecting other tribes has contributed to countless rebellions in South Sudan. 

Illiteracy contributes to this much. An illiterate person will not believe in integrity. They can be cheated easily to only belief in lies. A politician may claim for example that Shilluk is mistreating the Toposa. He will come to the Toposa that they need to fight Shilluk because they are against them. The Toposa will think that this is true. They will take arms and fight the Shilluk. The aftermath is loss of lives. People will be displaced. But if educated, you will know the impact of such war. The illiterate classes among South Sudanese are the ones who wreak havoc. They are dominant.

In conclusion, solving the problem of South Sudan is a hard task. It needs togetherness. It needs some prudence. In my view, all the problems of South Sudan branch from one trunk. The U.S is the main cause of South Sudanese problem. The moment they get a share of oil, they will struggle to defend South Sudan. When asked to build refineries, they will, based on the agreement. If told to try disarmament, they may do it. Failing to give oil to U.S.A by Libya, Somalia, Syria to mention but a few has caused endless instability in those countries. Prudence is seen in South Korea. Look at the way it is growing faster due to support from the U.S. If oil is not given to U.S.A in either one or two fields, the war in South Sudan will not end. The U.S seems to run the world indirectly. They can make hay out of your warmth for you or slap you in the face as they take away a huge share in a manly way.



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